Eventual Serializability (1)

11 minute read


[In this post I am going to challenge the current direction in the literature on the appropriate notion of correctness for distributed applications]


Programmers have historically been interested in developing their programs assuming fully isolated executions and single copies of (non-shared) data. This (intuitive) tendency has been carried on through the decades, even after multiprocessing and distributed systems became prominent, the strong notions of consistency and isolation (e.g. linearizability and serializability) were used extensively despite their relatively high costs.

However, in about a decade ago developers realized that things cannot stay the same way anymore: providing such strong guarantees was simply not feasible, considering the unprecedented requirements of web-scale applications. Following the 2007 Amazon’s DynameDB, a plethora of eventually consistent data stores emerged that completely stripped off almost all concurrency control mechanisms in favor of low latency and high availability, which initially created a massive wave of excitement in the database users community: (at least some) people were convinced that they have finally found the final ansewr to their scalability problem. However, this honeymoon phase didn’t last long and posts like this started to appear on Hacker news:


The community of system developers (queit painfully) realized that they have entered the wrong neighborhood and things (once again), cannot stay like this any longer. This was the beginning of a new movement in distributed systems research to offer additional concurrency control mechanisms on top of these databases to keep them still attractive while making the lives of the developers easier (e.g. CRDT and HAT).

Although, the whole story sounds like people were just running around a circle, the process was (is) taking place smartly; on one side system researchers are designing well-engineered protocols offering new notions of fine-grained add-on concurrency control mechanisms without fully sacrificing the performance, and on the other side, the PL community is using program analysis techniques to inject these additional fine-grained guarantees as sparingly as possible: targeted concurrency control mechanisms must only be injected minimally until the programming semantics is lifted up enough for developers to be able to comfortably write correct applications.

What follows is my understanding of the direction that the second group of researchers took and my questions on if it was not the best one possible.

Application-level integrity invariants

One of the currently prominent ideas in the literature on how the concurrency mechanisms injection should take place, is to decouple the task of program design and the task of assigning correct meaning to those programs. The idea is to allow developers write their applications assuming a standard semantics and (then) specify their expectations from the program. Developers can then use program analysis tools to verify their programs correct under a particular choice of concurrency mechanisms (mechanisms that are being separately developed by the first group of researchers, which I think is a problem and I will write about it later).

Cause I’m Strong Enough: Reasoning about Consistency Choices in Distributed Systems (POPL’16)
This work presents a modular reasoning framework to establish preservation of high-level application invariants on a replicated eventually consistent system model under a particular choice of consistency guarantees assigned on a per-operation basis.

In the introduction, the paper uses the following example to argue that certain anomalous behaviors in the applications are not problematic and the mean of separating the acceptable behaviors from the non-acceptable ones, is the notion of application level “integrity invariants”.

cise1 "Alice and Bob concurrently make posts at r1 and r2. Carol, connected to r3 initially sees Alice’s post, but not Bob’s, and Dave, connected to r4, sees Bob’s post, but not Alice’s. This outcome cannot be obtained by executing the operations in any total order and, hence, deviates from strong consistency"

However, it then continues:

"Such anomalies related to the ordering of actions are often acceptable for applications."

They conclude from the above example that understanding such acceptable and unacceptable cases (e.g. the concurrent withdrawals from a bank account) is far from being trivial that’s why we have to equip users with a language to specify their requirements such as “the account balance to be always non-negative”.
However, they do not explain why they think writing application invariants in this way is an easy task; finding all sanity checks for real-world applications, at least to me, seems to be far from trivial. Forget about toy examples like bank account; can anybody specify what are all the application-level integrity requirements for TPC-C (besides the 12 that are given in the spec)?

Alone Together: Compositional Reasoning and Inference for Weak Isolation (POPL’18)
This paper uses a non-trivial proof technique to address the “challenging problem of verifying high-level correctness properties in weakly isolated environments”. Here, the main argument is that proving correctness of the applications assuming serializable transactions is easy but it is non-trivial for weaker forms of transactions.

As an example, authors present how a high-level consistency condition is preserved when running the new_order transaction (from TPC-C) in SI transactions, but is violated under weaker forms of isolation and also how their tool can be useful to automatically generate formal proves of such assertions.

However, one might ask the same question as before: what if a user misses some of the necessary high-level invariants and by using this tool concludes that their implementation is correct under a certain isolation guarantee and is good to be deployed? Luckily, the question is answered toward the end of this paper:

"Alternatively, a weakly isolated transaction T can be verified against a generic serializability condition, eliminating the need for guarantee annotations."

This means that their annotation language is able to capture the high-level notion of generic serializability (i.e. equivalence of all interleaved execution to some serial execution) and verify it over different isolation guarantees. Now, this seems reasonable; we should certainly use the weakest underlying transactional isolation guarantees if we are confident that no additional behavior will emerge compared to the strongly isolated case.

Unfortunately, the paper does not provide any evidence of the practical usability of their invariant specification language compared to this particuar notion of correctness (generic serializability condition). All of their examples show that in order to preserve any intuitive high-level invariant, generic notion of serializability must also be satisfied and vice versa.

Now, the question that naturally follows is: what is the point of performing all the intricate analysis techniques if at the end of the day, in order to be certain about the correctness of our application, we have to feed the tool with the classic notion of generic serializability? Couldn’t you come up with a much easier proof technique, if you knew the input to your tool is the good old notion of serializability? I don’t know the ansewr; maybe not. Maybe there is no easier targeted proof technique to achieve the same only for serializability.

In the next blog post, I will present some insights on the above observations.

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